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The following attributes can be evaluated:
- Cone Density
- Nearest Neighbor Distance
- Voronoi Tessellation Tile Area
- Effective Radius
- Packing Factor

​The Apaeros Retinal Imaging System generates images that allows the user to identify individual photoreceptors. Through third party software, Apaeros enables the user to measure various properties of retinal cone physiology. 

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Images of cone photoreceptors demonstrating increase in cone size from near fovea (left) moving temporally 

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Writing a proposal?

We support researchers in the grant application process.

​​Since Apaeros can image these attributes, the system has enabled various investigative studies, specifically:

  • - Increasing severity of Diabetic Retinopathy associated with decrease in cone regularity

  • - Diabetic Macular Edema associated with cone mosaic changes, cone reflectance and decreased regularity of cone spacing ​

  • - Photoreceptor disruption in Diabetic Macular Ischemia

More information can be found in the following publications:

Changes in Cone Density, Reflectivity and Regularity Assessed by AOSLO In Diabetic Retinopathy

J Lammer, A Ahmed, S Prager, M Cheney, SA Burns, PS Silva, LP Aiello, JK Sun, Beetham Eye Institute, Joslin Diabetes Center

Presented at ARVO 2013

Imaging of Vascular Wall Fine Structure in Human Retina using Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy

T Chui, T Gast, S Burns

Video © 2012 Beetham Eye Institute, Joslin Diabetes Center. All Rights Reserved. Courtesy JK Sun, MD, MPH

Instrument Functions: Measures of Cone Physiology